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Thursday, December 19, 2013

Solitary bees in pruned canes

An email from a grape grower a few weeks ago helped solve a mystery I posted about a few years ago--what caused tunnels moving in from the tips of blackberry canes. Small native bees were present in grape vines along with their larvae.

This interesting observation made me wonder...are we creating native bee habitat when we prune perennial crops? It would be interested to see if there's a positive effect on twig dwelling bees in these fields!

More information
Blackberry borers can mean big problems - NC Small Fruit & Specialty Crop IPM
A surprising cause of holes in pruned canes - NC State University Entomology Portal

Wednesday, December 18, 2013

Blueberry pollination posts at the NCSU Entomology Portal

Bumble bee foraging at a blueberry flower. Photo: HJB

We've posted lots of information about blueberry pollinators at the Entomology Portal, including results from our experiments over the last several years.

Which bees are the best blueberry pollinators?
Does bee diversity change how pollinators behave in blueberries?
Blueberry pollinators - Information on different bee species

Saturday, November 2, 2013

NC State Entomology Portal now live!

Read about aphids in strawberries at the NC State University Entomology Portal! Photo: Matt Bertone
After teasing it a few month ago, the Entomology Extension Portal is now live!  For the time being, I will continue to cross post articles here, but over the next six months, I'll transition NC Small Fruit & Specialty Crop IPM to the portal.

Check is out and let me know what you think!

More information
Entomology Portal - NC State University Extension

Friday, September 6, 2013

Late summer grape insect update

The Muscadine Field Day last month afforded me an opportunity to highlight some of the late summer concerns in grapes. Spittlebugs have prompted questions from both bunch grape and muscadine grape growers during the last three weeks.  Spittlebugs, commonly referred to as froghoppers, using their piercing-sucking mouth parts to feed on plant phloem. One of the most common species of spittlebugs in North Carolina is the two-lined spittlebug, which as an adult, is a distinctive black with orange/red stripes. Froghopper nymphs cannot fly, and one of the ways they protect themselves from predation is by producing masses of sticky bubbles to cover their bodies. This "spittle" is usually what prompts calls by growers, who are often concerned that their plants have been sickened by a disease.

Spittlebug feeding on muscadine grape vine. Photo: HJB
Spittlebugs rarely cause economic damage in grapes in the southeast. They feed on vegetative tissue, not fruit, and are generally present in low numbers.  Spittlebugs can be washed off plants with water (growers may want to use a high pressure sprayer), but unless they are present in large number or found directly on fruit that will be harvested, treatment is usually not necessary.

Prior to the Muscadine Field DayBill Cline captured a pair of mating grape root borer moths in the research vineyard at the Horticultural Crops Research Station.  Male grape root borers (GRB) are smaller than females, and both males and females are slow fliers, making them easy to spot and capture.

Female (front) and male (back) grape root borer moths. This pair was collected while mating by Bill Cline at the Horticultural Crop Research Station, Castle Hayne, NC. Photo: HJB

I have been getting reports of GRBs captures in monitoring traps in grower fields throughout August, which is similar to the activity periods that have been observed by our Grape Root Borer Volunteer Monitoring Network (GRB*VMN). Peak GRB activity appears during harvest in many vineyards.  Because this also appears to be the case in at the Hort. Crops Research Station, I left them a package of Isomate GRB pheromone dispensers (twist ties) to deploy before next July 1st (before flight activity begins).  This dispensers release pheromones that disrupt the ability of male moths to find "calling" females with which to mate.  This tactic is called mating disruption, and is a better fit, timing-wise, than pesticide applications for GRB management in North Carolina.

Female grape root borer moth. Photo: HJB

Finally, both Bill Cline and I have received calls in the past several years about fruit drop in muscadine grapes.  When these fruit are cut open, the seeds are brown and shriveled, unlike healthy fruit, which have white, firm seeds when unripe.

Damaged muscadine grape fruit which had dropped from the vine. Growers suspect stink bug damage, but I am not so sure. Photo: HJB

Growers have asked if this damage may be due to stink bugs, which have been common in vineyards in recent summers.  I am not convinced that stink bugs are to blame, however.  Stink bug feeding typically results in a tissue response at the feeding site.  For example, when stink bugs feed on the midrib of tobacco leaves, the leaf wilts down. Stink bug feeding on fruit, such as apples, pears, or tomatoes, produces a corky mass surrounding the feeding area, and feeding on cotton bolls produces internal "warts".  The grapes that have dropped from vines do not have any apparent external damage leading to the discolored seeds, suggesting that the cause was not feeding from the outside.

I suspect, regardless of the cause, that muscadine grapes are likely resilient to early season fruit drop and may compensate by making the fruit that remains larger.  Yield on plants with and without fruit drop has not been measured, however.

More information
Do it yourself - Grape root borer monitoring - NC Small Fruit & Specialty Crop IPM

Monday, August 19, 2013

NC State University Muscadine Field Day - Tomorrow!

The annual Muscadine Field Day is tomorrow, August 19th, at the Horticultural Crops Research Station, Castle Hayne, NC.  The meeting starts at 9am and ends at 2pm.  See you there!

Wednesday, July 24, 2013

End of harvest concerns in blueberries

As blueberry harvest nears the end in North Carolina, a few important insect related issues require some attention.

Spotted wing drosophila in processing fruit
Rainfall makes SWD management more challenging, a
s growers have discovered in the last two months.  As we move into the end of blueberry harvest, fruit being picked for processing is at higher risk for spotted wing drosophila (SWD) infestation for several reasons: It is often softer than fruit picked for the fresh market, and SWD prefer soft fruit; Processing fruit may be harvested less frequently than fresh market fruit, increasing the time ripe berries are exposed to SWD; Finally, because processing fruit is often machine harvested, all the fruit in the field (good and bad) may be picked.

There are some strategies that growers can employ post harvest to decrease the likelihood that SWD infested fruit will be send off for processing:
1. Hold fruit at cool temperatures. Work in our lab suggests that SWD eggs and larvae cease development at temperatures less than 41F.  They will not necessarily die at cool temperatures, but they likely will not cause further damage to the fruit. The longer fruit are held and the cooler the temperature they are held at, the more likely that small SWD larvae will die.  Holding fruit at cooler temperatures also give growers the added benefit of determining how significant any infestation is, as large larvae will exit fruit as it cools.

2. Sort out soft fruit. Soft fruit are the most likely to be infested with SWD for two reasons--egg laying SWD are more attracted to soft fruit, and because blueberries become softer as SWD feed. If growers can remove soft fruit before sending fruit off for processing, this will further decrease risk of infestation being present.  I suspect our aggressive soft sorting standards for fresh market blueberries are one of the reasons that SWD has been a less significant issue in this crop than some other hosts.

3. Sample collection timing. When receiving fruit, processors can either collect samples before or after fruit are sorted/de-stemmed.  Samples collected before fruit has been soft sorted are not necessarily representative of the status of the fruit that will be processed.  Samples of fruit after chilling and sorting, prior to processing/freezing are likely more 

Post harvest leafhopper treatments

Treatments to manage sharpnosed leafhopper vectors of blueberry stunt disease typically begin post harvest.  Blueberry stunt disease is caused by a phytoplasma, and symptoms include "bushy" growth due to short, stunted branches and yellowed leaving during the growing season which may prematurely turn red and fall off in late summer.  Most importantly, plants infested with stunt-causing phytoplasma do not produce 

Aerial applications of ULV (ultra low volume) malathion been used in the past for leafhoppers, due to effectiveness and ease of application.  However, many growers have also used this material for SWD management during the season, and careful attention must be paid to label restrictions on the number of applications that can be made of materials when selecting tools to manage sharpnosed leafhopper.  Application limits apply to the entire growing season, not just harvest season, so label limits on the number of applications also apply to leafhopper treatments.  Application limits apply the amount of active ingredient, not the trade names of those active ingredients.  Sources for updated labels with current use restrictions include CDMS and Agrian.

Alternatives to malathion that are effective against sharpnosed leafhopper include Assail (acetamiprid) and Asana (esfenvalurate).  Imidaclorprid and thiamethoxam are also options for sharpnosed leafhopper.  The NC Agricultural Chemicals Manual has recommendations for the use of these materials. It's important to note, however, that all these materials pose some risks to pollinators. While blueberries are not in bloom, some of our most efficient blueberry pollinators are ground nesting bees that may remain near fields after bloom.  Therefore, any insecticide treatments should be timed to leafhopper flights, ideally determined through trapping, to provide maximum efficacy against target pests and limit unnecessary applications.  See here for information on trapping and here for images to aid in sharpnosed leafhopper identification.

More information
How should growers manage spotted wing drosophila in rainy conditions - Strawberry Growers Information Portal
Study offers new insights on invasive fly threatening U.S. fruit crops - NC State University Newsroom
Implementing IPM at the Ideal Track - NC Small Fruit & Specialty Crop IPM
Crop Data Management Systems
Label Look Up - Agrian

Wednesday, May 1, 2013

A reminder: SWD treatments may flare spider mites

Remember when treating for spotted wing drosophila (SWD), some recommended materials may also flare spider mites.  Information on how to scout and what do here.

More information
What to watch for: Broad spectrum insecticide can flare mites - Strawberry Growers Information Portal

Wednesday, April 24, 2013

More thoughts on SWD trapping for 2013: How many traps should growers use?

After hearing several permutations on a similar question this week, namely "how many spotted wing drosophila (SWD) traps do I need to use?", I posted this information on the Strawberry Growers Information Portal.

More information
More on spotted wing drosophila monitoring: How many traps should growers use? - Strawberry Growers Information Portal

Monday, April 22, 2013

What to watch for: Strawberry clippers active

I am starting to cross post more information on the NC Extension Portals, and my latest post at the Strawberry Growers Information Portal addresses some of the many questions have gotten this week and last on strawberry clippers.

More information
What to watch for: Strawberry clippers - NC Strawberry Growers Information Portal 

Thursday, April 18, 2013

Spotted wing drosophila monitoring recommendations for 2013

Spotted wing drosophila traps in strawberry plots at the Horticultural Crops Research Station, Clayton, NC. Photo: HJB
Strawberries are just beginning to ripen in central North Carolina, so last week, we placed spotted wing drosophila (SWD, Drosophila suzukii) traps in our research plots at the Horticultural Crops Research Station in Clayton, NC.  Eagle eyed observers will noticed some differences in the traps in the photo above and those we placed in our SWD plots a few years ago.

Shading traps placed in strawberries
What's easily visible above is that our traps have "hats".  We added these hats because work from other labs suggested that SWD like shade and that leaving traps uncovered in strawberry plantings may catch fewer flies.  In a multistate comparison of SWD traps conducted in 2011, a trap with a "hat", referred to as the Haviland trap, caught more flies than other trap types in a range of different crops.  Hats are likely not necessarily in crops with shaded areas or where traps can be hung directly from host plants, like blueberries, cherries, and caneberries.

A Haviland-type SWD trap with a "hat".  In this case, the hat is meant to keep rain out. The Haviland trap performed well in a comparison of SWD traps during 2011.Photo: HJB

Bait recommendations
In previous years, we have used apple cider vinegar (ACV) as the primary bait in our SWD traps and for the SWD*VMN because early experiences suggested that it was easier to work with compared to a yeast & sugar slurry (the other bait we tested).  However, these early experiences were based on changing the baits less frequently than every week.  When baits are changed weekly, yeast & sugar lures appear to catch more flies and may catch flies earlier than ACV.  Therefore, for 2013, we're suggesting that SWD trappers consider using yeast & sugar lures rather than ACV.

In order to make the yeast & sugar bait, follow the steps below:

Ingredients for yeast & sugar slurry: yeast & sugar! Photo: HJB

1. Collect the bait ingredients, active yeast and plain sugar.

2. Combine 4 Tbsp sugar with 2 Tbsp yeast.

3. Add 32 fl oz of water to the dry ingredients and stir till the mixture is suspended. Do not store premixed bait in a sealed container.  It is actively fermenting (which is what attracts flies) and can explode.  It's easiest to mix bait as it's needed rather than premixing.

4. Fill traps with 150 ml of bait (or just over 5 fl oz) each.  Traps should be check and baits changed weekly.  The odors associated with these non preserved baits change over time, and after one week, they are likely less attractive to SWD.

A few other helpful hits for using yeast traps:

  • Many other insects find fermenting yeasts attractive. Traps should have small entry holes, no more than 3/16 large.  Otherwise, larger insects such as beetles, filth flies, and moths will clog traps.
  • Trap contents can be poured into a container for transport back to the office or lab rather than counted in the field.
  • Do not discard used bait in the field.  We do not want to make our fields any more attractive to SWD than they already are!
  • Kitchen sieves can be used to filter flies, but flies in yeast baits might need be rinsed after filtering to see wings, legs, and ovipositors (key ID characteristics) clearly. 

It's very likely that our bait recommendations will change for next year, based on experiments that are planned or already underway. SWD is an invasive species, meaning it's new to North Carolina, and many other areas. Therefore, many of our monitoring and management recommendations are subject to change.  We are all learning a lot of new information, as quickly as we can!

For the time being, we have not changed our trap recommendations. We are still suggesting using 32 oz plastic containers for 2013, although this recommendation is also subject to change, especially if commercially available traps become available that out perform homemade traps.

More information
Plan to monitor insects in 2013 - NC Small Fruit & Specialty Crop IPM

Wednesday, March 27, 2013

The future of the SWD*VMN for 2013 and beyond

Male (right) and female (left) spotted wing drosophila on a raspberry at the Upper Mountain Research Station, Laurel Springs, NC. Photo: HJB

For the last three years, we have coordinated the Spotted Wing Drosophila Volunteer Monitoring Network (SWD*VMN).  The goals of the SWD*VMN were:

1. To detect the movement of spotted wing drosophila (SWD) if or when it spread throughout the eastern United States
We began the SWD*VMN in 2010, when SWD had only been detected in Florida in the eastern US. The SWD*VMN facilitated the first detections of SWD in South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Arkansas, Louisiana, West Virginia, and Maryland.

2. To determine when during the year SWD are active and relative population densities throughout the year
SWD have been detected earlier each year in states where the SWD*VMN has been active.  In 2012 and 2013, some locations in the southeast caught flies throughout the entire winter. Peaks in trap captures in NC appear to occur in mid summer (July) and fall (after September), with fall populations appearing the largest.  However, these trap capture peaks are subject to interpretation because the traps and baits we use are likely not as attractive to SWD adults as fruit. 

Dates of first trap capture for eastern states participating in the SWD*VMN. Table from Burrack, et al. Journal of Integrated Pest Management.
3. To communicate and display information on detections and trap captures with growers and extension personnel
All trap captures from the SWD*VMN are available here (click on a county to link to the sites in that county and then click on site names to view data from that site). Our policy has been to only identify sites to county.

Along the way to accomplishing these goals, we've been able to gather some additional information. During 2010, we compared different lures at SWD*VMN sites and learned that some baits need to be changed more frequently than others. Our relative trap capture numbers have suggested that some crops may either foster lower SWD populations or be less conducive to our trapping methods.  For example, we catch more flies in shady crops such as caneberries and some grapes and fewer flies in crops with open, sunny canopies such as strawberries and blueberries.  Importantly, this does not necessarily mean that we have fewer flies in theses systems.

Where does the SWD*VMN go from here?
We have accomplished the initial goals of the SWD*VMN and reached the end of the funding which supported the large statewide (in NC) and multi state efforts (much thanks to the Southern Region Small Fruits Consortium and the NC Tobacco Trust Fund, Inc. for their support).  We have also produced a journal article article to more widely share our findings from the SWD*VMN.

Moving forward, we will maintain, and improve the SWD*VMN site for use by our lab and partners in other states to collect, store, and display SWD trap capture data. Collaborators in OR, TN, AR, NY, and other states have expressed interest in continuing to use the site.  The improvements on the way for the site include incorporating graphs to display data for each site and, in the more distant future, incorporating degree day models being developed for SWD by folks in the western US.

In our lab, we will be using the SWD*VMN to collect data from our planned 8 to 12 trapping locations throughout the state, most of which will be at NCSU or NCDA & CS Research Stations. However, we will no longer be directly facilitating large scale SWD monitoring through our laboratory.  We've posting lots of "do-it-yourself" SWD monitoring information and will be posting a monitoring update for 2013 later today.  Please feel free to contact us if you have questions about the SWD*VMN.

More information
All SWD*VMN posts at NC Small Fruits & Specialty Crop IPM

Plan to monitor insect pests in berries in 2013

One of the most important pest management practices growers can impliment is montoring insect pest populations.  This allows management pratices to be targeted when damaging populations are present and also provides a wealth of information about future pest populations.
We’ve posted lots of information about monitoring methods for insects in berry crops, including a series of “do-it-youself” (DIY) posts.
Do-it-yourself insect monitoring:
One caveat to our spotted wing drosophila (SWD) trapping recommendations-many new baits and lures are in the process of being developed for SWD. We no longer believe that apple cider vinegar is the most appropriate bait for traps. Instead, we are suggested that interested trappers use a mixture of 4 Tbsp sugar plus 2 Tbsp active yeast dissolved in 32 oz water. Traps should be filled 1 to 2 inches deep with this bait and changed weekly! After one week, yeast baits become unusable.

Monday, February 25, 2013

Changes are afoot!

Over the last few months, I've been working with NCSU CALS Extension IT to develop NC State supported tools to support online information delivery--like this blog!  As part of that process, we are developing an Entomology "Portal", which will house all of our entomology extension information.

As part of this transition, I will soon be starting to cross post articles to the Entomology Portal as well as here.

Stay tuned for updates!

Thursday, February 21, 2013

What insecticides are acceptable where?

Over the last few days, I have received several questions about spotted wing drosophila (SWD) management.  The most common question from growers, agents, and others has been: What insecticides are acceptable for use on fruit that will be exported to other countries?  A significant amount of the blueberries, blackberries, and raspberries grown in North Carolina are marketed by companies that sell world wide. A lower percentage of the strawberries grown in the states are sold outside NC, but some growers also work with large marketers to sell their strawberries who may sell fruit outside the US.

While we know what insecticides are acceptable for use crops grow in the US (if it's labeled on the crop, it's acceptable for use here), not all the options available for US growers are acceptable for use on products that will be exported.  Pesticide residue tolerances (or maximum residue levels, MRLs) must be established in receiving countries for a material to be acceptable for export to that country.  One tool I use frequently to determine if pesticide residue tolerances have been established in other countries is the MRLDatabase, developed by the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS).  This large database allows you to search by crops, pesticides, and countries in lots of combinations.  Just like any pesticide use information, material presented in this database is subject to change.  Therefore, I always recommend that growers speak with their marketer before using a new management tool to ensure that it is acceptable for the markets their fruit may be sent.

More information
MRL Database - USDA FAS

Wednesday, February 6, 2013

NC Commerical Blackberry and Raspberry Growers Association Meeting - February 19

There's still time to register for the NC Commercial Blackberry and Raspberry Grower's Association Meeting in Shelby, NC on February 19th. I will be there to discuss what we learned about spotted wing drosophila in 2012 and where we go from here.  Gina Fernandez, NC State University, caneberry breeder, has posted meeting details on her blog.

More information
NC Commercial Blackberry and Raspberry Growers 6th Annual Meeting - Team Rubus

Sunday, February 3, 2013

Spotted wing drosophila confirmed from Indiana and the United Kingdom - Update: SWD also found in Texas and Colorado

States where Drosophila suzukii, also referred to as spotted wing drosophila, has been detected in the continental United States. Adapted from Burrack, et al. 2012. Journal of Integrated Pest Management.

Spotted wing drosophila (SWD) was confirmed in Indiana during October 2012, bringing the total number of states with confirmed populations of SWD to 33.

SWD was also detected in United Kingdom in September 2012, which brings the number of countries (including the US, Canada, and Mexico) where SWD has been detected outside of its presumed native range of eastern Asia to at least nine.

Update, March 7, 2013
While reviewing the National Agricultural Pest Information System's (NAPIS) Pest Tracker records for spotted wing drosophila in preparation for an upcoming presentation, I noticed two additional state level detections for 2012 that I had previous missed, Texas and Colorado.  These detections bring the total number of states where SWD has been detected to 35 since 2008.

More information
First find of spotted wing drosophila in Indiana - Purdue Plant & Pest Diagnostic Laboratory
Strawberry alert: The 2mm fly that could decimate Brittan's fruit industry - The Daily Mail
Drosophila suzukii - European Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) Factsheet

Wednesday, January 30, 2013

Prionus larvae found on blueberry

In October 2010 and again in January 2013 growers reported 'Duke' highbush blueberry fields with severe damage to roots and crowns caused by grubs feeding on the underground parts of the plants.  The grubs appear to be the larval stage of a species of Prionus beetle.

Larvae removed from the crown of a dying blueberry bush

Prionus feeding damage to the crown of a blueberry bush
The larvae reportedly take three to five years to mature, and may be more likely to occur on stressed bushes.  Above-ground symptoms are hard to distinguish from drought stress or nutrient deficiency.  Affected bushes are weakened progressively as the larvae grow and inflect more damage.

The only way to confirm the presence of these insects is to dig bushes and examine the roots and crown for damage or larvae.  As pictured, the larvae are larger than most other grubs found in the root zone,  are widest at the head end, with strong jaws, and with bodies that are elongated rather than the typical "C-shaped" grubs of other beetles.

Update, 2 February 2013
As Bill indicates, these larvae have only been observed on 'Duke' bushes.  We aren't sure what this means, but we suspect that 'Duke' may be stressed in some way that predisposes it to infestation.  It's also important to note that management action taken against larvae this size will likely be ineffective because they are so entrenched within plant tissue.  If Prionus is a more wide spread issue than we currently believe, we will need to determine when adults are active and egg laying occurs, since this would likely be the most effective time to initiate management.  

Wednesday, January 16, 2013

What to watch for: Aphids in strawberries

There has been concern among some strawberry growers in the southeast regarding aphid vectored virus infections in plants from some sources. Dr. Barclay Poling, NC State University Horticulture Department, has reported on these observations as they developed in a series of alerts, found at the NCSU Strawberry Growers Portal.

Aphid vector viruses are rarely significant issues in annual strawberry because even if infections occur during the year, they happen later in the season and do not cause economic losses.  In addition, infection from multiple viruses (virus complexes) is often necessary for visual symptoms or loss to occur.  Where aphid vectored viruses can be significant is in perennial production and in nursery production.

It appears that plants suspected to be infected with viruses are restricted to a few plant sources, so for growers who do not have plants on their farm from suspected sources, no additional management is recommended.  However, for growers with suspect plants, management is recommended to prevent early season in field spread.  Systemically applied insecticides are likely the most effective method of managing aphids, and information on using these materials is in the Southern Regional Small Fruit Consortium Strawberry IPM Guide.  Importantly, these materials have application timing restrictions with respect to bloom to protect pollinators.  This restrictions should be carefully followed and are another good reason NOT to preventatively treat for aphids if you do not have suspect plants!  Most North Carolina growers with a need to treat should be able to meet these restrictions. If systemic insecticide applications cannot be made, the alternative foliar materials are more difficult to use because of pollinator concerns and should be applied only if aphids are present--which requires good scouting!

The recommended aphid scouting program is 40 randomly selected leaves per acre, which should be observed for live, non parasitized aphids. If only parasitized aphids are present, treatment may not be necessary.  This is particularly true if you have already treated, because parasitized aphid mummies will often hang on to plants when dead non parasitized aphids will wash away or decay.

Non parasitized and parasitized (brown, rounded) aphids on cabbage. Photo: IPM Images, Alton N. Sparks, Univ of Georgia.
The aphid species we are most likely to have present on strawberries in North Carolina are strawberry aphids, green peach aphids, and occasionally, potato aphids.  It can be important to distinguish between these species, particularly if faced with the need to treat populations with foliar insecticide applications, because aphid species may respond differently to insecticides.

All three aphids can be green but may also be orange to red. Potato aphids, with their larger size and long legs, are perhaps the most distinctive species on strawberries.

Potato aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) nymphs, adults, and winged adults. Photo: IPM Images, Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University.
Strawberry aphids can be distinguished from green peach aphids by the presence of knobbed hairs covering their bodies, which can be observed under 20x or greater magnification. University of Florida Extension has a nice image illustrating these hairs.

Strawberry aphids (Chaetosiphon fragaefolii) posses knobbed hairs that can be used to distinguish them from green peach aphids. Photo: IPM Images, Jeffery Lotz, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
Green peach aphids are among the most common aphid pests in North Carolina crops and have a very wide host range.

Green peach aphid adult and nymph. Photo: Jim Baker, NC State University.

If aphids are observed in fields with suspected virus infected plants that do not appear similar to our common species, contact your extension agent and submit a sample to the NC State University Plant Disease and Insect Clinic (or your state resources) for identification.

Sunday, January 6, 2013

SWD*VMN article published in Journal of Integrated Pest Management

A summary of our three-year multistate Spotted Wing Drosophila Volunteer Monitoring Network (SWD*VMN) has recently been published in the Journal of Integrated Pest Management.  The Journal of IPM is open source, and you can access the article here. You can find SWD*VMN from trap captures from 2010 through present here.

Friday, January 4, 2013

Spotted wing drosophila biology and mangament in blueberries

Our final spotted wing drosophila (SWD) factsheet for the year focuses on blueberries.  Please note, factsheets are shared via Google Documents, which is great for quickly and easily posting files but does sacrifice image quality.  If you would like a printer quality digital copy of this factsheet. Please email me.

You can find the first factsheet on SWD biology and management in North Carolina caneberries here, the second on post harvest SWD significance and sampling here, the third on SWD in strawberries here, and the fourth for home gardeners here.

Spotted wing drosophila biology and management in home gardens

The fourth in our series of spotted wing drosophila (SWD) factsheets focuses on home gardeners.  Please note, factsheets are shared via Google Documents, which is great for quickly and easily posting files but does sacrifice image quality.  If you would like a printer quality digital copy of this factsheet. Please email me.

You can find the first factsheet on SWD biology and management in North Carolina caneberries here, the second on post harvest SWD significance and sampling here, and the third on SWD in strawberries here.