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Spotted wing drosophila - General information

Male Spotted Wing Drosophila. Photo: Absalom Shank
Spotted wing drosophila (SWD) is a new pest of soft skinned fruit which has recently been detected in the southeast.  As of now, we do not expect this pest to impact the quality of berries and other fruit produced in North Carolina or other southeastern states, but SWD presents new management challenges for fruit growers.  The resources presented here are intended to inform the public and aid growers in managing SWD.


Background
Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD, Drosophila suzukii) is an invasive pest of soft skinned fruit in North America.  First observed in Fall 2008 in central California, SWD was not correctly identified until early 2009.  In 2009, SWD was detected in fruit crops throughout the west coast, from California to Washington.  SWD is polyphagous, meaning it feeds on many different plants, all soft skinned fruits.  Known hosts include: blackberries, blueberries, raspberries, cherries, peaches, apples, pears, nectarines, plums, grapes, strawberries, and figs.  In California, which represents the largest acreage of these fruits nationwide, SWD was responsible for an average of 20% crop loss, although near total infestations are possible.  Because of the significant threat SWD represents, a group of entomologists from California, Oregon, and Washington received a large USDA Specialty Crops Research Initiative (SCRI) grant to study its biology and management.  This project is headquartered at Oregon State University.


In late Fall 2009, SWD was detected in Florida, near the main strawberry producing area.  The appearance of SWD on the east coast prompted the establishment of a monitoring network in NC, SC, and VA with the support of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium.  SWD was detected in SC and NC in July and August 2010, respectively.  In September 2010, SWD was found in Michigan.

SWD in North Carolina
SWD were captured in NC and SC in late summer 2010, but most potential host plants were either done fruiting or harvested by this time and no larvae were detected in the limited number of fruit present (mostly muscadine grapes and figs).  This changed in late September when large SWD larval infestations were discovered at the Upper Mountain Research Station near Laurel Springs, NC.  It is unclear how SWD was introduced to this location.  In North Carolina, SWD larvae have been collected feeding on blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, and figs.  In order to confirm SWD presence, suspected fruit are collected from the field, and adults are reared out.


In 2011, the southeastern monitoring network will expand, and we will include fruit sampling for larvae in addition to adult trapping.  We are also developing research projects to determine which species and varieties within a species are preferred and the impact of hot, humid southeastern summers on SWD, which prefer mild climates.

SWD Resources
General Information 
SWD*IPM - Oregon State University
Spotted Wing Drosophila - Washington State University Extension
Spotted Wing Drosophila Updates - Washington State University IPM
Spotted Wing Drosophila Site - Michigan State University

Monitoring
SWD*IPM Monitoring Videos - Oregon State University
SWD*IPM Trapping Information - Oregon State University
NC, SC, and VA Trapping Network - NC Small Fruit, Specialty Crop, and Tobacco Entomology

Commercial Production
Spotted Wing Drosophila Management in Stawberries, Caneberries, and Cherries - UC IPM

Homeowner/Gardener Information
Spotted Wing Drosophila Management on Cherries in Home Gardens - UC IPM 
SWD*IPM Gardener Information - Oregon State University


Economic Impact
Spotted wing drosophila: potential economic impact of a newly established pestGiannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics


NC Small Fruit, Specialty Crop, and Tobacco IPM SWD Posts
All SWD Posts
Blackberry field visits, May 26th
SWD detected in southeastern North Carolina
Global Change Forum - June 30th
Practicing what we preach - Implimenting IPM at the Ideal Track
Spotted Wing Drosophila Workshop - March 24
Spotted Wing Drosophila Monitoring 2011 - Seeking Volunteers
Plants, Pests, and Pathogens webinar available
It's SWD time again!
North Carolina Winegrowers Association presentation and handouts
Management tools for spotted wing drosophila
Presentations for SE Regional Fruit and Vegetable Conference
Final 2010 SWD Webinar Now Available
Spotted Wing Drosophila Page
Spotted Wing Drosophila Coverage in Local Media
Randolph County Newsletter
Commercial Blackberry and Raspberry Field Day
A Different Story at the Sandhills
SWD Appears with a Vengeance at Upper Mountain
SWD Trapping Update - Identification Overview
Watching the West - SWD in Grapes
SWD Trap Captures Continue in NC and SC
Watching the West - SWD Organic Trial Results
SWD Article in Growing Magazine
SWD Trap Captures Now Available
SWD Trapping: Week 1
Spotted Wing Drosophila Trap Captures Increasing in Florida
SWD Training Session Online
SWD Leaves Exports in Question
OSU Website Coordinates SWD Information
Economic Impact of SWD
SWD Monitoring to Begin in April
SWD Climate Model and OSU Workgroup
An Emerging Pest on the March





Sponsored by the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium Projects 2010 E-01 and 2011 E-01, the North Carolina Specialty Crop Block Grant Program, and the North Carolina Tobacco Trust Fund Commission, Inc.


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